Molecular Characterization:

We use multiplexed in situ hybridization to understand what genes define particular cell types, gaining insight into functional differences that may arise from these transcriptional programs.


Electrophysiological Approaches:

In many cases, synapses are tailored to suit a particular function within a neural circuit. We deploy electrophysiological approaches to interrogate the functional properties of habenular synapses.

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Optical Monitoring and Manipulation of Activity during Behavior:

To determine when transcriptionally-defined cell types are engaged in particular behavioral tasks, we use fiber-based optical monitoring of neural activity, facilitated by the delivery of genetically-encoded calcium indicators.

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Three-dimensional anatomical characterization:

In order to overlay connectivity information onto the transcriptional landscape of habenular neurons, we use projection labeling, in situ hybridization, and hydrogel-based tissue clearing to collect three-dimensional data sets merging cell-type identity with long range connectivity.